Phospholipids as the building block component of liposome has long been used in delivery system. In water, these amphiphilic molecules tend to organize into a vesicular structure due to maximizing hydrophobic interactions and to entropically minimizing free energy. Fabricating nanoliposomes with a target size between 50 nm to 200 nm is important for encapsulation through enhanced cellular uptake, but processing these liposomes for medical and industrial applications is challenging and it can be used as effective nanocarriers with enhanced encapsulation efficiency to trap bioactive compounds in healthy foods.
Among all ways to produce nanoliposomes as nanocarriers, the vortex fluidic device (VFD) is a relatively new processing used in thin-film microfluidics and thin-film flow chemistry. The processing efficiency of VFD is improving. Thus, it is applicable in many fields of scientific research and industry, including the synthesis of small molecules, processing in pharmaceutical industry, and manipulating single-cell organisms. Due to the physical attachment of the lipids to the VFD glass tube, the surface of the VFD tube was functionalized and transformed from a hydrophilic to a hydrophobic surface using a silane derivative, and subsequent experiments were undertaken exclusively under continuous flow in a hydrophobic tube.